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Qunut Nazilah: A Guide to Making Dua for the Oppressed in Times of War | Blog


Published: January 29, 2024 • Updated: February 13, 2024

Author: Sh. Yousef Wahb

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ

In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.


Abū Dāwūd reported from Sahl b. Saʿd that the Prophet ﷺ said, “Supplications (duʿā) at two times are never (or seldomly) turned down, duʿā at the time of the call to prayer and duʿā at the time of fighting, when people are locked in battle.” In another version of the hadith reported by the same companion, “There are two times during which the gates of heaven are opened. Rarely is the duʿā of someone rejected at these times: when the call to prayer sounds and when standing in battle ranks for the cause of Allah.” While obligated to exert every worldly effort to achieve their objectives and advocate for their causes, Muslims also hold deep faith in the spiritual efficacy of duʿā and continual reliance on Allah’s support. This spiritual strength becomes especially evident during moments of conflict and fear. Integral to our belief in the unseen is the concept of the “soldiers of Allah,” a Qur’anic term that repeatedly illustrates the divine assistance provided to believers through angels or various natural phenomena.  
Belief and sincerity are catalysts for invoking divine support capable of achieving miracles. When the soldiers of Ṭālūt (or the biblical King Saul), who had remained after Ṭālūt tested them with the command to not drink from a river despite their thirst, faced the threat of Goliath and his overwhelming forces, Ṭālūt reminded them of Allah’s universal rule (sunna): “How often has a small force, with God’s permission, defeated a larger army! God is with those who are steadfast.” Ṭālūt did not convey this sentiment while relying solely on mystical feelings; instead, his reliance on Allah was grounded in careful planning and thoughtful consideration. He spoke these words after leading his army into action and testing his soldiers’ commitment and discipline. In the critical moment of confrontation, all that remained for him was duʿā.
This pivotal moment saw both Ṭālūt and his soldiers earnestly invoking Allah’s support: “Our Lord, pour patience on us, make us stand firm, and help us against the disbelievers.” Recognizing the sincerity of Ṭālūt’s small army after enduring numerous challenges, Allah granted them victory. Notably, the Qur’an emphasizes that this triumph occurred solely “with God’s permission.” After recounting this story, Allah reminds us of another universal sunna: “If God did not drive some back by means of others, the earth would be completely corrupt, but God is gracious to all.”
The sunna of Allah endures throughout history. Centuries later, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and his companions found themselves in a comparable predicament during the Battle of Badr—slightly over 300, inadequately armed, confronting an army of 1000. Despite the Prophet’s demanding responsibility of leading the army and overseeing the battle, numerous reports highlight his fervent duʿā during the conflict. Witnesses recount seeing him face the direction to prayer (qibla), hands outstretched, draped in his upper and lower garments, imploring:

O Allah, accomplish for me what You have promised to me. O Allah, fulfill what You have promised! O Allah, if this small band of Muslims is vanquished, Your worship will cease on earth.

The Prophet fervently beseeched Allah, persisting in duʿā until his upper garment slipped from his shoulders. Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq, may Allah be well-pleased with him, approached him, retrieved the garment, and placed it back on him. Embracing him from behind, Abū Bakr reassured him: “O Prophet of Allah, your prayer to your Lord will suffice, for He will fulfill what He has promised you.” It was then that Allah revealed the words: “When you implored your Lord for assistance, He answered, ‘I will reinforce you with a thousand angels in succession.' God made this a message of hope to reassure your hearts: help comes only from God, He is Almighty and All-Wise.”
In al-Bukhārī’s version of the above incident, the Prophet ﷺ is reported to have said,

O Allah! I ask you for the fulfillment of Your covenant and promise. O Allah! If You will (to destroy the believers), You will never be worshiped after today. 

Abū Bakr caught him by the hand and said, “This is sufficient, O Messenger of Allah! You have asked Allah intensely.” The Prophet ﷺ was clad in his armor at that time. He went out, saying: “Their forces will be routed and they will turn tail and flee. But the Hour is their appointed time—the Hour is more severe and bitter.”
The Prophet was also heard saying,

O Allah, this is Quraysh, who have come with their arrogance and pride, opposing and denying Your Messenger. O Allah, grant me the victory You promised. O Allah, make them perish this morning.

Expressing concern for his companions, he was also heard saying, “O Allah, they are on foot, provide mount for them; O Allah, they are naked, clothe them; O Allah, they are hungry, provide food for them.” 
Furthermore, ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, may Allah be well-pleased with him, said,

On the day of Badr, I engaged in some fighting, then I hurried to see how the Messenger of Allah was doing. I found him in prostration, saying, “O Ever-Living, O Sustainer!” (yā Ḥayy yā Qayyūm) repeating these words and not saying more. I returned to the battle, then came back, and he was still in prostration, saying the same words. I went back to fight, then returned, and he was still saying that. Then Allah granted him victory.

Scholars have extensively pondered the reactions of the Prophet and Abū Bakr during this critical moment. Some have emphasized the Prophet’s embodiment of fear (khawf) at that juncture, while Abū Bakr exemplified a state of hope (rajāʾ). Both approaches are commendable, yet it is essential to clarify that Abū Bakr’s response does not imply greater confidence in Allah’s promise than the Prophet’s. The Prophet, deeply concerned about his companions, particularly as they faced their first significant physical encounter with enemies, also harbored worries about the future of the entire ummah. This concern is palpable in his supplication: “If You will (to destroy the believers), You will never be worshiped after today.” Furthermore, the Prophet engaged in extensive duʿā, not only expressing his concerns but also intending to instill confidence in his companions. Their witnessing of the Prophet’s fervent supplication likely contributed to their reassurance, knowing that his duʿā holds significant weight with Allah.
Additionally, Abū Bakr’s reaction can be seen as a response to the Prophet’s visible exhaustion, reflecting his understanding of the Prophet’s deep concern. A related report highlights that the Prophet spent the entire night before the battle engaged in fervent supplication, underscoring the gravity of the moment.
Simultaneously, the Prophet was renowned for his profound courage. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (rA) recounted how they used to seek shelter by drawing close to the Prophet during the Battle of Badr, as he positioned himself closest to the enemy. On that day, the Prophet stood out as “one of the most formidable individuals.” The harmonious equilibrium of exerting effort while relying on Allah is eloquently depicted by Abū al-Qāsim al-Suhaylī (d. 581/1185),

As for the Prophet's intense dedication and his fervor in supplication, he witnessed the angels being steadfast in battle, with Gabriel (Jibrīl) covered in dust on his sides. The ‘allies of Allah’ (anṣār Allah) engaged fearlessly in the face of death. Jihad takes two forms: the physical jihad with the sword and the spiritual jihad through supplication. It is a sunna for the Leader (imam) to be positioned behind the army, not engaging in combat with them. Everyone exerted themselves in dedication, with no one seeking respite from the fervor of the two struggles and jihads. The allies of Allah and His angels were engaged in intense effort, without giving preference to rest. The party of Allah, alongside their adversaries, remained steadfast.

Furthermore, hadith compilers dedicated chapters to reports recounting duʿā against enemies to be defeated and shaken. During the Battle of the Confederates (aḥzāb), when several Arab tribes besieged Medina with the aim of uprooting the entire Muslim community, the Prophet prayed, “O Allah, Revealer of the Book, Swift to account, defeat the Confederates. O Allah, defeat them and shake them.”
In the face of numerical inferiority against the Confederates and amidst betrayal from neighboring tribes, the Prophet and his companions were bestowed a significant triumph by Allah, achieved without resorting to full-scale combat. Nonetheless, it was still called a “battle” to commemorate Allah’s soldiers, including the angels, the wind, and preceding them, the sincerity, hard work, and duʿā of the believers.  

The Legislation of the Duʿā of Calamities in Prayer (Qunūt al-Nawāzil)

In 4/625, a few months after the martyrdom of 70 companions in the battle of Uḥud, about 80 other companions who were known as the qurrāʾ (master Qur’an memorizers and reciters) were deceitfully martyred in the two expeditions of al-Rajīʿ (a well eight miles away from Asfan) and Biʾr Maʿūna (a well in Hijaz whose exact location is not well-identified). These 80 companions were sent by the Prophet upon the request of some non-Muslim tribes to teach their people the Qur’an and the basics of Islam.
Al-Rajīʿ is the tragic story of a cunning plot by the ʿAḍal and Qārra tribes, who killed eight of the Prophet’s ten envoys and handed the other two to Quraysh who killed them in continuation of their revenge campaign against the Muslims. Before receiving the news about al-Rajīʿ’s group, the Prophet sent 70 companions to the Arab leader Mālik b. ʿĀmir, who had requested a group of qurrāʾ to teach his people. Mālik rejected the Prophet’s invitation to become Muslim but showed interest in learning more about Islam alongside his people. Despite the Prophet’s reluctance to dispatch his companions in such large numbers to the region of Najd, which at the time hosted many of his enemies, he honored the protection (jiwār) promised by Mālik. Dishonorably, Mālik’s nephew, ʿĀmir b. al-Ṭufayl, called upon some of his allies to kill the entire group while it was camped around the well of Maʿūna. Sixty-nine of them were killed; only one injured survivor was able to make it back to Medina, where he died a couple of years later. 
Many supernatural wonders (karāmāt) that these companions experienced before and after death are widely documented in prophetic biography (sīra) literature. The passing of these companions grievously saddened the Prophet. Anas, may Allah be well-pleased with him, said,

Never did I see the Messenger of Allah in so much grief [at the loss of a] small army as I saw him in grief for those 70 men who were called qurrāʾ (and were killed) at the well of Maʿūna; and he invoked curses for a full month upon their murderers.

The Prophet made duʿā against certain individuals who plotted the tragedy of the well Maʿūna by name. He made duʿā against ʿĀmr ibn al-Ṭufayl, who had threatened the Prophet himself, for thirty days, saying, “O Allah, protect me from ʿĀmr ibn al-Ṭufayl as You will, and send upon him a punishment that will destroy him.”
In another version, the Prophet said, “O Allah, protect me from ʿĀmr ibn al-Ṭufayl and guide his people.” Allah then inflicted upon ʿĀmr a plague that led to his demise. 
Numerous other hadiths record the Prophet’s sorrow and his supplications against those and other tribes. His companion Khufāf b. Īmāʾ narrated,

The Prophet of Allah bowed down (performed rukūʿ) and, upon raising his head, said: “[The tribe of] Ghifār, Allah has forgiven them. [The tribe of] Aslam, Allah has granted them safety. [The tribe of] ʿUsayya, has disobeyed Allah and His Messenger. O Allah, invoke your curse upon the tribes of Liḥyān, Riʿl, and Dhakwan.” Then, he prostrated.

The Prophet’s invocation continued for a month, as narrated by Anas: “The Prophet performed the supplication of qunūt (lit. devotion) for one month after rising from the rukūʿ position, invoking curse on some Arab tribes. Afterwards, he stopped.” 
The Prophet also performed qunūt in response to other calamities. When Quraysh obstructed a group of companions from migrating to Medina, subjecting them to restraint and torture, the Prophet was deeply affected by their predicament. Faced with the inability to personally intervene and rectify their plight, he turned to Allah, invoking their names and fervently praying for their release while supplicating for divine retribution upon Quraysh. Abū Hurayra narrated,

When the Prophet raised his head from the final rakʿah of the Fajr prayer, he said: “O Allah, protect al-Walīd ibn al-Walīd, Salama ibn Hishām, ʿAyyāsh b. Abī Rabīʿa, and those oppressed in Mecca. O Allah, intensify Your grip on [the tribe of] Muḍar, and show them years similar to the years of [Prophet] Joseph (Yūsuf).”

The Prophet’s qunūt, which reflected his deep grief over his companions, was not due to a lack of contentment with their passing. Rather, as Shāfiʿī jurist and legal theory (uṣūl) specialist, al-Isnawī (d. 772/1370) points out, the Prophet’s motive to make qunūt was to “avert the rebellion of [those] killers and offset  the calamity of the Muslims by seeking successors for them as they were [a group of] brave qurrāʾ.” Moreover, scholars maintained that the practice of qunūt al-nawāzil, or the supplicatory prayer during ‘momentous events’ like calamities and war, does not contradict the praiseworthy individual pursuit of martyrdom (shahāda), as qunūt generally encompasses seeking Allah’s support to alleviate calamity and resist oppression.  
It is important to note that as the Prophet earnestly prayed against Quraysh and others in certain instances, he also supplicated for them in different situations, tailoring his prayers to the circumstances. Hadith supreme master, Imam al-Bukhārī (d. 256/870), who dedicated a chapter to “The Supplication against the Polytheists for Shaking and Destruction,” also dedicated a chapter to “The Supplication for the Polytheists with a Request for Guidance to Reconcile their Hearts.” A later erudite hadith master, Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī (d. 852/1449), remarked on al-Bukhārī’s systematic approach to this issue, seeing it as a reflection of the latter’s careful attention to the Prophet’s practices. Ibn Ḥajar further noted that the Prophet would pray against his enemies when their severity and harm intensified and pray for them when there was hope for understanding and reconciliation with them.

How to Practice Qunūt al-Nawāzil

Having underscored the power of duʾā through numerous incidents in the Prophetic tradition and Qur’anic narratives, with a special emphasis on the significance of qunūt during times of adversity, we now turn to explain the details of how to perform qunūt al-nawāzil, and some of the legal differences therein. 
Qunūt, in the Arabic language, refers to several meanings including praise, duʿā (either for or against someone or something), obedience, and humility. In the Islamic legal tradition, it has acquired the specific meaning of an invocation (dhikr), encompassing both praising Allah and making duʾā to Him during prayer. Subject to juristic differences of opinion regarding its legality, when to perform during prayer, and the performative style, qunūt is recommended or allowed to be performed in Dawn (fajr) and ‘Odd Number’ (witr) prayers, as well as in some or all prayers during times of calamities affecting Muslims.
Upon examining all hadiths related to qunūt, jurists have held varied opinions on the specific details of qunūt al-nawāzil. While the formal stance of the Mālikī school does not consider it a sunna, the Ḥanafī, Shāfiʾī and Ḥanbalī schools allow or recommend it, differing in identifying the prayers in which it can be performed. Jurists also diverged on whether qunūt should be recited aloud or to oneself, and on whether it should be performed before bowing (rukūʿ) or after rising from it. Since the Shāfīʿī school is considered the most permissive in this regard, their rulings on qunūt al-nawāzil can be summarized as follows.
According to the Shāfiʿī school, qunūt al-nawāzil is recommended in all obligatory prayers. Eminent scholar and Shāfiʿī jurists, Imam al-Nawawī (d. 766/1277) asserted, “When a calamity such as an enemy attack, drought, epidemic, thirst, evident harm, or something similar afflicts the Muslims, they [are recommended to] perform qunūt in all obligatory prayers.” This also includes the Friday prayer. Moreover, with the exception of funeral prayer, where qunūt al-nawāzil is deemed reprehensible (makrūh), it is allowed but not recommended during the supererogatory (sunna) prayers.
Shāfiʿī jurists did not limit the definition of a ‘calamity’ eligible for the recommendation of qunūt al-nawāzil to one that befalls all or a large group of Muslims. Instead, they held that qunūt al-nawāzil is considered a sunnah even if the calamity has befallen a single Muslim, provided that the individual holds benefit beyond themselves extending to the whole community, such as a scholar or a courageous person upon whom the community relies. Additionally, qunūt al-nawāzil is not exclusively recommended for those directly affected by it; Muslims worldwide should engage in it to express their shared concern and endeavor to fulfill their communal obligations towards one another. Furthermore, qunūt al-nawāzil can be practiced in response to a potential threat from an enemy, even if they are Muslims. No authorization from the authorities is necessary for the validity of practicing this sunna.
According to the Shāfiʿī school, qunūt is to be performed after rising from rukūʿ and can be undertaken in congregation or individually. While specific supplications are recommended for other types of qunūt, there is no particular one reported for qunūt al-nawāzil. Following the aforementioned prophetic practice, it is advised to generally implore Allah for the alleviation of calamities, His support for the oppressed, and His retribution against oppressors. If practiced in congregation, the duʿā should be of a reasonable length, taking into consideration those who may not endure standing for an extended period. If an entire congregation agrees on a specific duration, it is acceptable to prolong the duʿā.  
As in all forms of duʿā, the positioning of hands during qunūt depends on the particular objectives of the prayer, mirroring the spiritual disposition of the one beseeching Allah. When seeking relief from a calamity, it is recommended to turn the back of the hands towards the heavens. When seeking the attainment of something, it is recommended to raise the palms towards the heavens, such as beseeching the removal of the calamity for the remaining span of one’s life. Considering the distress induced by the calamity, it is recommended to recite the duʿā audibly in all circumstances (whether an individual is praying alone or in a congregation, and whether the prayer incorporating qunūt is an audible or inaudible prayer).
The congregational observance of qunūt al-nawāzil reflects a communal commitment to self-care and shared causes, embodying the prophetic ideal of the Muslim community described as, “The believers in their mutual kindness, compassion, and sympathy are like one body. When one of the limbs suffers, the whole body responds to it with wakefulness and fever.” Although prostration (sujūd) is deemed more suitable for duʿā, being the closest state between an individual and Allah as stated by the Prophet, the practice of qunūt is associated with rukūʿ. According to Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, this is likely because qunūt is viewed as a communal practice, involving the entire congregation. Even if the followers in a lead congregational prayer (sing. maʾmūm) merely say “āmīn” to the imam’s duʿā, the collective act of prayer, in congregation, with a diverse group of Muslims uniting in submission and sincerity to Allah while seeking His help, enhances the likelihood of the duʿā being accepted. Muslims today continue the practice of qunūt al-nawāzil, collectively turning to Allah, thereby demonstrating their concern for one another and fulfilling their duty to support oppressed Muslims worldwide, at the very least by remembering them in their duʿā.

Some Examples of Duʿā in Qunūt al-Nawāzil:

اللهم إنا نستعينك ونستهديك، ونستغفرك ونتوب إليك، ونؤمن بك ونتوكل عليك، ونثني عليك الخير كله، نشكرك ولا نكفرك، ونخلع ونترك من يفجرك.

O Allah, we seek Your assistance and guidance. We ask for Your forgiveness and sincerely repent to You. We firmly believe in You and place our trust entirely in You. We praise You for all the goodness that is inherent to You. We express our gratitude and strive not to be ungrateful for Your blessings. We forsake and distance ourselves from those who reject You.

اللهم إياكَ نعبد، ولك نصلي ونسجد، وإليك نسعى ونحفد، نرجو رحمتك ونخشى عذابك، إن عذابك الجد بالكفار ملحق.

O Allah, You alone do we worship, and to You we pray and prostrate. We dedicate our efforts to You, striving in Your worship. We earnestly hope for Your mercy while being fearful of Your punishment, Certainly Your punishment befalls the disbelievers.

اللهم احفظنا، وارحمنا، وانصرنا، وفرج كربنا وكرب المسلمين، اللهم اكفنا والمسلمين شر مصائب الدنيا والدين، أصلحنا وأصلح من في صلاحه صلاح المسلمين، لا تهلكنا، وأهلك من في هلاكه صلاح المسلمين. اللهم اسقنا الرحمة واللطف والعافية والبركة ولا تجعلنا من المحرومين.

O Allah, protect us, show us mercy, grant us victory, alleviate our distress, and the distress of all Muslims. Shield us and all Muslims from the evils of the calamities in this worldly and religious affairs. Guide us to rectitude, and guide those whose rectification brings goodness to Muslims. Spare us from destruction, and let those whose removal brings benefit to the Muslims face it. O Allah, shower us with Your mercy, gentleness, well-being, and blessings, and do not deprive us of Your favors.

اللهم اصرف عنا وعن المسلمين الأذى والمحن والجور والظلم وكل البلايا والأمراض والفتن والضلال والجهل ما ظهر منها وما بطن. اللهم أنجِ المستضعفين والمكروبين والمظلومين من المسلمين، واكلأهم واحفظهم وأمدهم وتولهم واهدهم ووفقهم لما تحبه وترضاه.

O Allah, lift and turn away from us and from the Muslims harm, calamities, oppression, injustice, and all kinds of afflictions, diseases, deviations, misguidance, and ignorance, whether apparent or hidden. O Allah, save the weak, the distressed, and the oppressed among the Muslims. Provide for them, protect them, support them, care for them, guide them, and grant them success in what You love and are pleased with.

اللهم الطف بنا وبهم فيما يجري به القضاء، واصرف عنا وعنهم شر الطغاة والظلمة والفاسدين ومن عاونهم عاجلا غير آجل في عافية وسلامة يا أرحم الراحمين.

O Allah, Grant us and them success in what is ordained, and divert from us and them the evil of tyrants, oppressors, corruptors, and those who aid and abet them. O Allah, act quickly, without delay, in well-being and safety through Your mercy, O Most Merciful of the merciful.

Notes

1 Sunan Abū Dāwūd, no. 2540.
2 Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī, al-Adab al-mufrad, no. 661.
3 Qur’an 2:249.
4 Qur’an 2:249–51. The concept is illustrated in historical events such as Ṭālūt assisting the Children of Israel, highlighting the need for checks and balances between nations to maintain justice and prevent widespread decay. This underscores the importance of one group counterbalancing another for societal well-being.
5 Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, no. 1724.
6 Qur’an 8:9–10; Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, no. 1724.
7 Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, no. 2915.
8 Qur’an 54:45–46; Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, no. 2915.
9 ʿAbd al-Malik Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawiyya, ed. Muṣṭafā al-Saqqā et al., 4 vols. (Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, n.d.), 2:273; Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-rusul wal-mulūk, ed. Muḥammad Abū al-Faḍl Ibrāhīm, 2nd ed., 11 vols. (Cairo: Dār al-Maʿārif, 1967), 2:440–41.
10 Sunan Abū Dāwūd, no. 2747; al-Ḥākim al-Naysabūrī, al-Mustadrak, no. 2633, who graded it as authentic according to the criteria of al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
11 Aḥmad b. ʿAmr al-Bazzār, Musnad al-Bazzār, no. 662.
12 Sunan al-Nasāʾī, no. 825.
13 Musnad Aḥmad, no. 656.
14 Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Fatḥ al-bārī bi sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, ed. ʿAbdulʿazīz Ibn Bāz et al., 13 vols. (Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Salafuyya, n.d.), 7:289.
15 Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, no. 6392; Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, no. 1742.
16 See for instance, Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf al-Ṣāliḥī, Subul al-hudā wal-rashād fī sīrat khayr al-ʿibād, ed. Fahīm Shaltūt et al., 12 vols. (Cairo: al-Majlis al-Aʿlā li-l-Shuʾūn al-Islāmiyya, 1992), 6:97–100.
17 Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, no. 677f.
18 Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusayn al-Bayhaqī, Dalāʾil al-nubuwwa wa maʿrifat aḥwāl ṣāḥib al-sharīʿa, ed. ʿAbd al-Muʿṭī Qalʿajī, 7 vols. (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1988), 5:318–22; Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa al-nihāya, 5th ed., 15 vols. (Beirut: Dār al-Maʿārif, 1988), 5:57–58.
19 Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, no. 679b.
20 Ṣaḥiḥ al-Bukhārī, no. 4089.
21 Ṣaḥiḥ al-Bukhārī., no. 6200; Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, no. 675.
22 Jamāl al-Dīn al-Isnawī, al-Muhimmāt fī sharḥ al-rawḍah wa al-Rāfiʿī, ed. Aḥmad ʿAlī, 10 vols. (Beirut: Dār Ibn Hazm, 2009), 3:81.
23 Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Fatḥ al-bārī, 6:108.
24 Yaḥyā b. Sharaf al-Nawawī, Sharḥ ṣaḥīḥ Muslim (Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1972), 5:176.
25 Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, no. 2586.
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